A Rivet is a permanent mechanical fastener.
A Solid Tubular Rivet consists of a smooth cylindrical shaft with a head on one end. The end opposite the head is called the buck-tail. On installation the rivet is placed in a punched or drilled hole, and the tail is upset, or bucked (i.e., deformed), so that it expands to about 1.5 times the original shaft diameter, holding the rivet in place. To distinguish between the two ends of the rivet, the original head is called the factory head and the deformed end is called the shop head or buck-tail.
Because there is effectively a head on each end of an installed rivet, it can support tension loads (loads parallel to the axis of the shaft); however, it is much more capable of supporting shear loads (loads perpendicular to the axis of the shaft). Bolts and screws are better suited for tension applications.
Semi-Tubular Rivets (also known as Tubular Rivets) are similar to solid rivets, except they have a partial hole (opposite the head) at the tip. The purpose of this hole is to reduce the amount of force needed for application by rolling the tubular portion outward. The force needed to apply a semi-tubular rivet is about 1/4 of the amount needed to apply a solid rivet. Tubular Rivets can also be used as pivot points (a joint where movement is preferred) since the swelling of the rivet is only at the tail. Solid rivets expand radially and generally fill the hole limiting movement. A wide variety of materials and platings are available, most common base metals are steel, brass, copper, stainless, aluminum and most common platings are zinc, nickel, brass, tin. All tubular rivets are waxed to facilitate proper assembly. The finished look of a Tubular Rivet will have a head on one side, with a rolled over and exposed shallow blind hole on the other. Semi-Tubular Rivets are the fastest way to rivet in mass production but require a capital investment for installation equipment.